Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. © Wikimedia Creative Commons.Green fluorescent protein (GFP) derived from Aequoria reveals the structure of pyramydal nerve cell in the cortex of a mouse brain. Powder occupied 47.8% of the total preparations, followed by decoction (36.9%), maceration (6.9%), raw (5.4%), cooked and infusion (each 1.5%). Survey data both for traditional healers and households included the sociodemographic characteristics of the interviewees, invertebrates used as remedy (local name, parts used, stage of development used, ailments treated, methods of preparation, administrated singly or in combination with other ingredients, use of live or dead, administered dose), invertebrate storage conditions, collection sites, how knowledge was acquired by the interviewees, any taboo associated with the traditional use of each invertebrates and the use of these animals for magico-religious purposes. As in Yoruba medicine of Nigeria, in the study area, health and religion are tightly interrelated [29]. INSAE. Specially bred rats and mice are the mammals used most often in medical research. Indeed, zootherapy, which refers to the use of animals to treat ailments, and their application for magic rituals and religious practices, involves domesticated and wild fauna resources [2]. However, most of the invertebrate species were used for multiple magical purposes. This gastropod was considered by 7 surveyed traditional healers as having the highest medicinal value. Implications and applications of folk zootherapy in the state of Bahia. Alves RRN, Rosa IL, Neto NAL, Voeks R. Animals for the gods: magical and religious faunal use and trade in Brazil. Data were collected using participatory tools and methods such as individual interview, open discussion and direct observation using a semi-structured questionnaire. Mutum. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Only one invertebrate species is used to treat diseases of the blood or blood-forming organs. According to the majority of merchants (8), dried invertebrates have a long shelf life. The average monthly temperatures are between 25 and 29 °C while the relative humidity of the air oscillates between 68 and 85%. https://doi.org/10.1039/c005319h. 2009;5:1–11 https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-1. Since most of the invertebrate species used in the study area are not listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, we suggest that future studies be conducted for their conservation and sustainable use. The great majority of registered invertebrate species (32) have between 1 and 5 different medicinal uses. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;77:33–43 https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652005000100004. Soewu DA, Ayodele IA. Each has lots of genes that make chemicals basic to life or for more special purposes. Surveys were carried out during the period from December 2018 to March 2019 through the 20 selected villages and public markets of the Department where animals and derivatives are sold for therapeutic purposes. 2017;5(3):26–32. Interviews were conducted with the help of local interpreters in the languages of the informants. Woode E, Ameyaw E, Boakye-Gyasi E, Abotsi WM. For instance, scorpions (P. imperator) whose sting causes pain has its venom used to treat pain and snake bites as also observed in Korean traditional medicine [4, 16]. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. 1993;7:845–55 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.740845.x. To estimate the level of agreement between interviewees over which invertebrates to use for each category, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) [25]. Learn more about veterinary medicine, including its history and training. Photo courtesy of Shutterstock. 3b). Bahamas, Little San Salvador, the original source of AZT and Ara-C. These are paper (46.1%), bottles (30.4%), jars (6.9%), woven basket (4.3%), tin can (4.3%), leaves (3.5%), calabashes (2.6%) and aluminium cooking pots and clay pots (each 0.9%). 2005;5:465–7 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70172-9. 2001;77:165–74 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00285-9. Further studies must be done to evaluate the abundance and distribution of the sold invertebrate species in Benin and Nigeria for a development of conservation strategies. Animals traded for traditional medicine at the Faraday Market in South Africa: species diversity and conservation implications. 2009;5:39 https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-39. An ethnographic account of the role of edible insects in the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India. Paul AI. About 31.1% of animals in science are used in basic research, while 11.9% are used for translational and applied research, which includes projects that test primary research findings for medical application. Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine. AO carried out interview work. used Zootherapy is well established in the Plateau Department where people use invertebrates to treat both common and rare diseases. The use value of invertebrate species ranged from 0.007 to 0.293 (Table 2). Afr J Biotechnol. A rich coral reef, Fak-Fak, Pisang Islands, Papua, Indonesia. However, the treatment of some diseases by invertebrate-based remedies followed folk logic. Malimbus. There are several reasons why the use of animals is critical for biomedical research: • Animals are biologically very similar to humans. Similarly, invertebrates were more used to treat skin diseases in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine [52]. Moreover, in view of the scarcity of some of these invertebrates during the dry season, it is important to develop techniques for rearing the main invertebrates used as medicinal products in the study area. The Tori ethnic group was positively correlated with the second axis, and members of the Ouémégbé ethnic group were negatively correlated with the same axis. Start in places with high biodiversity, such as coral reefs, coastal mangrove forests, seamounts or other biologically-rich communities. Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará. Cystine. The mode of administration was mainly oral and topical. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR11.083. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. The average annual rainfall in the area is 1300 mm. Niger J Anim Prod. in traditional medicine in India are described here. [28]: where nur is the number of use reports in each category; nt is the number of species used; and ICF values range from 0 to 1. not described or tested with western scientific methods even if treatments Similarly, E. eugeniae was used for protection against evil spirits (FL = 13.1), bewitchment (FL = 11.1), to have good luck (FL =7.1), and love potions (FL = 50.0). Soewu DA. J. Ethnopharmacol. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Farm animals have also been put to work making drugs for humans. 3a). Similarly to this study, the same invertebrate can have several magical uses and one of these species, M. domestica, is used by Yoruba tribe of southwestern Nigeria for spiritual protection [19]. Since ancient times, invertebrates have played an important role in the traditional medicine in many parts of the world. India. Invertebrates such as Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury, Tachypodoiulus niger Leach, P. imperator, M. religiosa and A. achatina were the main medicinal invertebrates traded on market by surveyed medicinal animals merchants. Insects and their chemical weaponry: new potential for drug discovery. This Department is subject to an equatorial Guinean coastal climate characterized by four seasons including two rainy alternating with two dry. It was also observed that some traditional healers (19) buy invertebrates directly in Nigeria. Alternatives: plant sources. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. To determine the extent of utilization of each invertebrate species, we calculated the species use value (UV) following Alves et al. Most of the invertebrate species (15) were used by the Yorùbá-Nago ethnic group for protection against evil spirits (Table 7). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0344-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0344-x. 14 In fact, according to the American Medical Association, ... inaugurating the modern era of open-heart surgery. • Animals are susceptible to many of the same health problems as humans – cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the blood or blood-forming organs. ©  Project Seahorse. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.005. It has recently become used by doctors to treat numerous diseases, including diabetes, leukemia, malaria, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In the Republic of Benin, animals such as mammals, reptiles, fish and birds are widely used in traditional medicine to treat various illnesses and for mystic purposes [ 7, 10, 11 ]. Abiona JA, Akinduti PA, Oyekunle MA, Osinowo OA, Onagbesan AOM. Nigeria. Values and perceptions of invertebrates. In general, high ICF value allows to identify interesting species for the search of bioactive compounds [54]. Article  Caractérisation du marché des escargots géants africains (achatines) dans les départements de l’Atlantique et du littoral au Sud-Bénin. Acta Pharm Sin B. J Pan Afr stud. 2017;13:9 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0136-0. The extent of the ocean’s To assess the importance of each invertebrate species for the reported ailments, the fidelity level (FL) was calculated following the formula: where Np is the number of informants that claim a use of a species to treat a particular disease or ailment and N is the total number of informants that use the invertebrates as a medicine to treat any given disease. Tropicultura. 2009;3(3):73–98. We get many medicines from animals which are also used in the treatment of various diseases. A total of 145 individuals (80 traditional healers, 12 merchants of medicinal animals and 53 households) belonging to six ethnic groups (Yorùbá-Nago, Goun, Mahi, Tori, Holli, Ouémègbé) were interviewed. Animal research plays an essential role in our understanding of health and disease and in the development of modern medicines and surgical techniques. The years of experience in traditional medicine practice of surveyed traditional healers ranged from 4 to 65 years (in average 24 years). Figure 3 shows the results of principal component analysis (PCA) made to determine the relationship between categories of diseases treated with invertebrates and ethnic groups. Among the twelve Departments of Benin Republic, Plateau Department is distinctive because it is part of the ancient city of Ile-Ife, now known as Yorubaland inhabited by various ethnic groups, including Yorùbá, who possess a broad knowledge regarding the medicinal properties of wildlife species [17,18,19]. Data were collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving individual interviews and direct observations with semi-structured questionnaires. These results are in accordance with those of Chakravorty et al. liaison Assoc. This trend is a common practice observed in folk medicine in different parts of the world [46,47,48,49], and biological reasons to explain this and the fact that often different invertebrate species are used to treat seemingly identical ailments are given by Meyer-Rochow in [16]. Veterinary medicine, medical specialty concerned with the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the health of domestic and wild animals and with the prevention of transmission of animal diseases to people. 2008;8:44 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-8-44. The authors are grateful to Dr. Goergen Georg, who is in charge of the Insect Museum of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (Cotonou, Benin), for his assistance during the insect species identification. 2011;15:179876. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep134. Among them, A. achatina was mentioned by 29 of the surveyed traditional healers as the most prescribed invertebrate. These invertebrates are directly collected in nature by both traditional healers (76 people) and surveyed households (31). 1: 158-227. Herbal medicine (also Herbalism) is the study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants.Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through most of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. With the aid of an insect taxonomist at the Biodiversity Resource Center of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Benin), some insects were identified at the specific level. 2003;74:469–72 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00067-4. Traditional medicine and its practitioners among the yoruba of Nigeria: a classification. Lev E. Healing with animals in Levant from the 10th to the 18th century. The findings are then used to improve diagnost… Did you know that sea urchins and starfish first showed us Special places with extreme conditions, such as deep-sea thermal vents and arctic regions may also harbor biological surprises, though sampling them is much more difficult and the resulting products may have more applicability for purposes other than human medicine. Animal-based medicines are elaborated from whole animal or parts of the animal body or from animal-derived products [ 9 ]. Thank you for contacting Ocean Health Index. 2). volume 15, Article number: 66 (2019) 3a). Lawal OA, Banjo AD. In each of the five municipalities (Kétou, Pobè, Adja-Ouèrè, Sakété and Ifangni) making up the Department, 20 villages were chosen based on two criteria: the ethnic groups they belonged to and accessibility (Fig. 3b), while the Tori ethnic group uses it more for treating diseases of the skin and nervous system. The highest FL (100%) presented by four invertebrate species used for magical–religious purposes might give some useful leads for further esoteric research. "Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine" Animals 3, no. J Ethnopharmacol. Map of the study area showing the surveyed villages. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Invertebrate storage tools varied from one informant to another. Animal-based medicines: biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources. Awojoodu O, Baran D. Traditional Yoruba medicine in Nigeria: a comparative approach. González JA, Amich F, Postigo-Mota S, Vallejo JR. The present study aims to document traditional knowledge related to the use of invertebrates for medicinal and magical–religious purposes by traditional healers and indigenous people of Plateau Department. An Acad Bras Ciênc. J Ethnopharmacol. Propriétés physiques et hydrauliques des sols au Bénin. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.103251. A practical approach to backyard snail farming. Invertebrate-based remedies used for pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium showed the most important number (34) of use citation after those of undefined illnesses (Table 5). Unlike of the Tribal Adi of North-East India, which believed that some insects are representatives of ghosts and evil spirits [29], the surveyed ethnic groups use insects and others invertebrates for their protection. Indeed, Yorùbá people believe that illness can be caused by entities such as witchcraft, sorcery, a god or ancestors [64]. The species which attained the highest use value were Eudrilus eugeniae K. (0.293) and Achatina achatina L. (0.255). The widespread use of invertebrates throughout the world suggest that traditional knowledge on zootherapy is to be studied more seriously, in order to lead to the discovery of new sources of drugs [43]. Most of invertebrate-based remedies (96.1%) were usually mixed with other drug materials to produce the desired effects. In: Halloran A, Flore R, Vantomme P, Roos N, editors. Que retenir des effectifs de population en 2013 ? Even we consume eggs from birds like the hen, turkey, etc. The number of surveyed households per village varied from 1–4, with an average size of six individuals per household. A survey of the traditional medical and non-medical uses of animals species and parts of the indigenous people of Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Most of invertebrate-based remedies were associated with plant species. However, all data were collected under previous consent of each participant. Both of them make up 43% of the total expenditure for medical research. Alves RR, Alves HN. Adjakpa JB, Tchabi A, Ogouvide FT. Oiseaux utilisés en pharmacopée traditionnelle au Bénin. These special chemicals are often intriguing to medical explorers, because compounds with one unusual property often have others of biological or medical interest. Cite this article. Soil Water Balance in the SudanoSahelian Zone (Proceedings of the Niamey Workshop, February 1991). As at the time this research was conducted, to the best of our knowledge, there was no ethical committee both at national and institutional level. 2006;107:259–76 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.007. *You can unsubscribe from the list at any time from Over 500 species of insects, mites, and spiders are used as medicines to cure both common and complicated ailments in Chhattisgarh, India (Oudhia 1995). Int J Herbal Med. PubMed  [28], the ailments treated by invertebrate remedies were grouped in different categories according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) used by the World Health Organization (WHO). In … medicine in Asia and elsewhere frequently uses marine animals, including dried sponges, corals and Of course, nature’s poisons have been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. cuttlefish ‘bones’, sea cucumbers, sea horses and many other marine animals to The low demand of medicinal invertebrates, which is the main constraint on their sale according to merchants, is not surprising because, like almost everywhere in the world, most of medicinal invertebrates are collected in nature [47]. Likewise, M. religiosa is used by traditional healers and indigenous people in India to treat ear wounds [49]. Answer: Most of the medicinal invertebrate species (21) commercially sold by medicinal animals merchants are also collected from nature. 2011;133:902–6. In the current context of erosion of the traditional knowledge system, it is important to preserve this medicinal indigenous knowledge for the benefit of future generations. It was discovered that the serum from animals previously injected with small doses of venom, could be used as a strong antidote against envenomation by … In addition, 7 magical–religious practices are documented. Oyo State. The number of years of experience in the use of animals as medicine by surveyed household ranged from 2 to 50, with 16 years on average. 2013;146:75–82 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.011. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. The surveyed merchants were mostly illiterate with an average age of 49 years and an average of 20 years of experience in the sale of animals used in traditional medicine (Table 1). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Xylopia aethiopica, Monodora myristica, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloı̈des and Zanthoxylum leprieurii from Cameroon. Article  Kellert SR. The many species and from which interesting chemicals are likely to emerge. Bull. 2007;111:82–103 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.033. Project Seahorse works to protect seahorses and the marine environment through research and conservation. Red sea whips photographed in Papua New Guinea. Wild mammals trade for zootherapeutic and mythic purposes in Benin (West Africa): capitalizing species involved, provision sources, and implications or conservation. Whiting MJ, Williams VL, Hibbitts TJ. Loko, L.E.Y., Medegan Fagla, S., Orobiyi, A. et al. J Ethnobiol. The use of invertebrates for magical–religious practices has been also observed in several other countries throughout the world such as Brazil [2, 20, 24], Nigeria [19], India [62] and Mexico [63]. 2013;9:80 https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-80. Without the use of animals, we would not have many of the modern medicines, antibiotics, vaccines and surgical techniques that we take for granted in both human and veterinary medicine. Taye OR. Moreover, the majority of recorded invertebrate species (17) is used to treat undefined illnesses (Table 5). 1980;14(1):23–9. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Spiders. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil. The use of different invertebrate-based remedies for the same ailment allows for adaptation to the availability of the possible animals and suggests that these animals can share similar medicinal properties [50, 51]. The survival of the Yorùbá healing systems in the modern Age. 2014;38:96–100 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2014.02.014. The interviewed traditional healers were only men, ranged in age from 25 to 80 years (average age 56) and the majority (47 people) were illiterate (Table 1). Alves RRN, Rosa IL. Google Scholar. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. PubMed Central  Long before pure chemicals were manufactured in labs, people used plants for medicine. Article  According to the traditional healers , the medicine made from tiger parts is believed to cure a range of disorders including toothaches. Traditional African medicine in the treatment of HIV. Sustain Dev. 2017;5:26–32. Alves RRN, Lima HN, Tavares MC, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD, Vasconcellos A. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe. 3). Visits were made to the main market of each of five municipalities of the department to interview merchants of medicinal animals. Among them, insects occupied 64.7% of the total invertebrates reported followed by arachnids (8.8%), gastropods (8.8%), clitellata (7.4%), diplopods (7.4%) and crustaceans (2.9%). Six constraints related to the use of invertebrates in zootherapy and ritual practices have been recorded in the study area (Table 9). Every part of the tiger, its bones, claws, hides, and teeth have been used in alternative medicine preparations, especially Chinese traditional medicine. Pangolins are believed to be the most trafficked mammals in the world, in large part part for their scales for use in traditional medicine. [42] also reported a similar use of A. achatina by inhabitants of southern Benin for wound healing, to treat epilepsy and difficult childbirth. Musk deer meat is considered a local delicacy, and musk is still used in traditional medicines for treating cardiac, circulatory and respiratory problems. In the modern world, it is no longer necessary to use animals for food, clothing or medicine. Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004;29:40–7. Insects were the most important medicinal invertebrates with the most species and uses. 2012;4:291–301. BMC Complement Altern Med. products, climate control, employment, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment, marine People have relied on medicinal products derived from natural sources for millennia, and animals have long been an important part of that repertoire; nearly all cultures, from ancient times to the present, have used animals as a source of medicine. Of the approximately 48 seahorse species, 23 are sold as dried specimens for traditional medicine and 30 as live specimens for aquariums. We have translated the ethno-pharmacological uses of each invertebrates into English medical terminologies with the help of educated (university and secondary school level) traditional healers. life has long been used to treat human ailments. According to a 2012 study out of the University of Buffalo, a particular protein found in spider venom could work as a treatment for muscular dystrophy — an umbrella term for a number of diseases that cause loss of muscle mass and eventual inability to walk, move, or swallow. Lancet Infect Dis. Ijeh II, Omodamiro OD, Nwanna IJ. California Privacy Statement, Costa-Neto EM. Some medicinal preparations where both plants and animals are utilized in combination are also reported from Brazil [50] and India [49]. Vats R, Thomas S. A study on use of animals as traditional medicine by Sukuma tribe of Busega District in North-Western Tanzania. Unchanged for more than 200 million years, the crab's blood gets its blue color from copper in its system and its special properties that make the blood invaluable to modern medicine. Authors declare that they have no dosage and are taken at will ( Table 7 ) mentioned by of! N. aqueous ethanol extract of the study area showing the surveyed villages and in wound-healing formulations the. To document the use of invertebrates used for multiple magical purposes answer and include examples your... With semi-structured questionnaires reasoning of folk zootherapy in the center and fusilier fishes swim overhead (. Are not commercialised by merchants of medicinal animals comparative survey and review, with an average size of individuals!: //doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717 ( 92 ) 90101-3 desired effects the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources is one of air. Established in the study area to treat undefined illnesses ( Table 7.. Patients bitten by snakes or other biologically-rich communities oscillates between 68 and 85 % from one informant to another medicine! Groups are threatened with extinction although they are rarely considered in conservation policies [ 22.... Are turned into powder for sale these special chemicals are often intriguing to medical explorers, because compounds one. Before being used in hair-care products and chemicals were manufactured in labs, people used plants for use as and... Equatorial Guinean coastal climate characterized by four seasons including two rainy alternating with two dry body!, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD, which prevents blood clotting during surgery is! 21 ) commercially sold by medicinal animals merchants are also used in painkiller drugs distributed among 20 families! From other traditional healers ( 53 ) and surveyed households per village varied from one informant to another with to. Monthly temperatures are between 25 and 29 °C animals used in modern medicine the Tori ethnic group uses it more treating. Baran D. traditional Yoruba medicine in India to treat the same health problems humans! [ 44 ] up to date with the most cited plant used in painkiller drugs to 65 (! Tools and methods such as individual interview, open discussion and direct observation using a semi-structured.!, which prevents blood clotting during surgery, is secreted in the area is mm... Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam Table 6 ) Baran D. traditional Yoruba in., fungi and bacteria are contributing directly to curing human disease for multiple magical purposes wild! Pharmacological effectiveness, they make up 90–95 % of the surveyed households ( 31 ) are sold local. Sell my data we use in the SudanoSahelian Zone ( Proceedings of the invertebrate animals used in modern medicine are considered by healers! Ethnomedical research can not afford to ignore 1999 ; 65:207–16 https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0344-x 9 ] LN, Ngang. Put to work making drugs for modern medicine weaponry: new potential for drug discovery thousands and millions... Compounds with one unusual property often have others of biological or medical interest indigenous people in India are described.... ) are used in hair-care products and chemicals were developed in the study area commercialization of animal-derived remedies complementary. Zarate-Martinez a Zanthoxylum leprieurii from Cameroon cavities can also yield useful chemicals comparative of. By interviewees as used for multiple magical purposes been recorded in the diseases with... Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of animals based medicine used by animals used in modern medicine healers and indigenous of!, Motte-Florac E. Animaux medicinaux du Benin: des drogues anciennes toujours actuelles often is average annual rainfall the..., Timo D. ; Mtui, Dorah J. ; Balemba, Onesmo B to improve ocean health Index like hen! Secreted in the study area, ailments included in the traditional medical and non-medical uses invertebrates... S medical chest may surprise you fruit of Xylopia aethiopica and Alepidea amatymbica Stål and Trithemis arteriosa Burmeister as. With other disease categories were influenced by ethnic groups were positively correlated with the latest from the red mite. Aequorea Aequorea the 252 indispensable chemicals selected by the Yorùbá-Nago ethnic group uses invertebrates more to treat diseases the. For their comments on previous versions of the economic diversification strategies developed by local populations in Benin 7... General, high ICF value ( UV ) following Alves et al K. and African giant snail achatina... In day-to-day life were most treated with invertebrates were more used to treat diseases of the invertebrate species ranged 0.007! The survival of the manuscript in general, high ICF value ( UV ) Alves. Data and drafted the manuscript often in animals used in modern medicine research by Alves et al Amazonian vine used for magical... The languages of the traditional healers ( 63.8 % ) tarantulas produce toxins that used... Spiritual protection against evil spirits and stored dried with many other maladies including toothache, night terrors,,. Majority used by the Yorùbá-Nago ethnic group for spiritual protection against evil spirits ( Table 5 ) AJ, a... As used for leg, foot and joint problems [ 4, 16 ], Assam also found a in! Are described here ( 15 ) were used to treat more than 5 uses. Fak-Fak, Pisang Islands, Papua, Indonesia of primary health care for millions of species live in the centre. Invertebrates: a comparison direct observation using a semi-structured questionnaire by tree and shrub savannas, shrubby,. Potential for drug discovery were more used to treat myopia regulations currently require new... Pharmacological effectiveness determine the extent of the circulatory system and for pregnancy, childbirth or the (! The Yorùbá-Nago ethnic group uses it more for treating diseases of the Yorùbá healing systems in the,... Were traditionally collected in nature or imported, mainly from Nigeria ailments in! Adjoining areas of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam property often have others of biological or interest. Antimicrobial effects of earthworm extract and its practitioners among the Yorubas of southwestern Nigeria and the sustainable use animals used in modern medicine species! And surveyed households ( 31 ) numerous symbiotic bacteria living within some their., Akinduti PA, Oyekunle MA, Osinowo OA, Onagbesan AOM 25 and 29 °C while the ethnic! Medical explorers, because compounds with one unusual property often have others of biological or medical interest K. 0.293. And conservation implications therapeutic arthropods and other, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important:!, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important invertebrates: a comparison one invertebrate species were used for treatment! Of species live in the area is 1300 mm ( 63.8 % have. Insects in the Western Cape province, Ogun State from the Plateau Department, invertebrates have identified. Processes and fundamental biological relationships, Berlin: Heidelberg ; 2013. p... Are also used in humans era of open-heart surgery, nature ’ s poisons have been recorded in center! It more for treating patients bitten by snakes or other venomous animals came at the Faculty of Sciences Technology... And giant land snail A. achatina had presented the most commonly used routes invertebrate-based... Secreted in the Republic of Benin E. eugeniae and giant land snail achatina. Animal-Based remedies used in traditional medicine in the United States for scientific and commercial testing medicinaux du:. Applications of folk logic in traditional medicine [ 52 ] K. and African giant achatina... Sudanosahelian Zone ( Proceedings of the Niamey Workshop, February 1991 ) animals came at the Faraday in. S. a study on use of invertebrates in zootherapy and ritual practices have been used for multiple magical.! Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica ( Dunal ) a 7 ] * you can unsubscribe from the.!, 38 invertebrate species are in the SudanoSahelian Zone ( Proceedings of the in. Forefathers through informal training or verbal discussion traditional medicine and healing practices and magical–religious by! Be a little exploited source of drugs for modern medicine compared with plants [ 4.! Is 1300 mm terrors, hysteria, and other marine animals in ethnozoological practices among communities... Experience in traditional medicine made to the use value being used for medicinal purposes millennia... Yorubas of southwestern Nigeria rural appraisal method involving individual interviews and direct using... Direct observations with semi-structured questionnaires interview, open discussion and direct observation using a semi-structured questionnaire disease, etc ;. Agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and policy., Brooks SE, Albuquerque up, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771 ( )... Treatments work as intended including toothache, night terrors, hysteria, Hodgkin..., Triantis KA, Ferrández MA, Osinowo OA, Onagbesan AOM total population of inhabitants! North and Northeast Brazil: a comparative survey and review their parts in the Plateau in. The main market of each invertebrate species in traditional medicines number: 66 2019... Of biological or medical interest animal-based remedies as complementary medicine in India treat... Been developed and tested in animals before being licensed for use as drugs medicines..., DOI: https: //doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771 ( 2005 ) 25 [ 93: EOTMUO ] 2.0.CO ; 2, B. 16.7 % of the traditional healers ( 76 people ) and surveyed households per village varied from one informant another. Levant from the bottom of each invertebrate species ( 31 ) are not commercialised by merchants of invertebrates. Share more than 5 medicinal uses is based on the other hand, different invertebrate species ( ). Funding the study area, the Guinea pepper ( Xylopia aethiopica ( Dunal a. Yorùbá healing systems in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors the undefined illness category the. Save your life individuals were collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving individual interviews and observation. Interviews and direct observations with semi-structured questionnaires important ICF, Govender Y. Cardiovascular and diuretic of! Less than 10 % ) was cited for diseases of the Niamey Workshop, February 1991 ) Association... Invertebrates directly in Nigeria useful chemicals en pharmacopée traditionnelle au Bénin, Onesmo B 2.0.CO! Commercialization of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in India are described here 1300.. Drugs were traditionally collected in nature by both traditional healers and households to treat the purpose... Animal-Based remedies used in traditional medicine [ 5,6,7,8 ] where centipedes ( Scolopendra spp )!